The Indo-Mongolian Society of New York

Mongolian History-Online Resources



Compiled by the Indo-Mongolian Society of New York in 2004




History of the Mongols, Genghis Khan - Chinggis Khan,

Mongol Military Campaigns, Yuan Dynasty - Mongol China,

 Ilkhanid Dynasty - Mongol Iran,

Ulus Chaghatay Dynasty - Mongol Central Asia,

Golden Horde Dynasty - Mongol Russia,

 Mongol Invasions of Japan, Mongols in South East Asia,

Post-Empire and Modern Mongolia,

Mongolian Women in History,

Nomadic Civilization - Pastoral Nomadism & Inner Asian History,

Religious History of the Mongols, Art of the Mongol Empire,

Other Mongolian History Images, Other Articles About Mongolian History,

Mongol Empire Maps, Mongolian History Timelines,

Central Asian Tribal Groups History, The Manchus,

The Silk Road, Silk Road Art, Silk Road Frescoes of Dunhuang,

Historical Maps, Period Photos: Mongol, Tibetan, Siberian and Central Asian Subjects,

Indian Historical Cultural Influence in Central Asia, Gandaharan, Bactrian,Sogdian,Parthian and Sarmation Art


History of the Mongols

Origins of the Mongols

Ancestry of the Mongols

The Rise of the Mongol Empire

Defining Territories and Empire: from Mongol Ulus to Russian Siberia, 1200 - 1800

How did the Mongols Link East and West? (Selections from All the Khan's Horses)

The Mongol Khans         

History of the Mongol Empire - List of Rulers

The 'Pax Mongolica'

Mongols in World History

Mongol History

History of the Mongol Empire

Mongolia FAQ

Virtual Mongol History

Reign of Kuyuk (Guyuk) Khan

John of Plano Carpini the Pope's Envoy Travels to the Court of G'y'k Khan

Europe and the Vatican's Perspectives on the Mongol Empire Expansion

Grigor of Akner's Account of the Mongols in Armenia and Georgia

Armenian Historical Accounts of the Mongol Empire

Rabban Sauma, A Nestorian Christian Envoy to the Court of Khubilai Khan

The 'Barbarian Invaders'

A 13th Century Description of the 'Tatars' (Mongols)

Great Wall of China 2

Legacy of the Mongols

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Genghis Khan - Chinggis Khan

On Chinggis Khaan

The Era of Chinggis Khan, 1206 - 1227

Genghis Khan, Father of Mongolian Democracy

Genghis Khan, the Mongols and Asia

Changing Perceptions of Genghis Khan in Mongolia

The Treasure of Genghis Khan

Legacy of Genghis Khan Exhibition Resources, MET Museum, New York

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Mongol Military Campaigns

Mongol Conquest of China 1

Mongol Conquest of Khwarizm

Last Campaign of Genghis Khan

Subedai's Campaigns in Europe

The Battle of Mohi (Muhi) in Hungary, 1241

Mongol Invasion of Poland, Battle of Liegnitz, 1241

Research into Mongol Art of War

Description of Mongol Warfare from Friar John of Plano Carpini

Mamluks and Mongol: The Mamluk-Ilkhanid War, 1260-1281

Mongols Meet Their Match: The Battle of Ain-Jalut

Mongol Armies

Mongol Army, Khans, Commanders, Methods and Campaigns

Mongolian Archery Technique

Mongolian and Tibetan Archery

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Yuan Dynasty - Mongol China - 1279 - 1368

Khubilai Khan and the Yuan Dynasty

Yuan Dynasty Social Economy

Yuan Dynasty Paper Money Photograph

Khubilai Khan in Battle, 1287 (Observations of Marco Polo)

Phaga-pa Alphabet

The Monks of Khubilai Khan, Life & Travels of Rabban Sauma

Yuan Dynasty Zaju (Dramatic Performance Art Form)

Yuan Dynasty Art (1279-1368)

Yuan Dynasty Art 1279-1368, Summary and Images

Yuan Dynasty Landscape Paintings


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Ilkhanid Dynasty - Mongol Iran - 1265 - 1335

The Arts of the Ilkhanid Period

Art of the Book in the Ilkhanid Period

Developments of Arts in Iran Under the Mongols

New Visual Language of Iran Created by the Mongols

Images and Description of the Mongol Illustrated History,

The Jami al -Tavarikh, (Compendium of Chronicles by Rashid al-Din)

Illustration Sections of the Court of Ghazan Khan


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Ulus Chaghatay - Mongol Central Asia - 1227 - 1363

Chaghatay Ulus Administrative Order in Phags-pa Script with Chaghatay Mark

Ulus Chaghatay, Mongol or not?


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Golden Horde - Mongol Russia - 1240 - 1480


Ulus of Jochi (Golden Horde), 1240 - 1560's

History of Galicia & Volhynia; Relations of Leo of Galicia with Khan Telebuga of the Golden Horde

Golden Horde and Tatar Scholarly Articles

The Mongols and Russia

Mongols in Armenia

Mongol Invasion of Russia

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Mongol Invasions of Japan

Japan History Mongol Invasions

Khubilai Khan's Lost Fleet (Found again)

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Mongols in Southeast & Northeast Asia

Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Tibet, & Mongolia

Mongol Campaigns in Vietnam

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Post-Empire and Modern Mongolia

Decline of the Mongol Empire

Mongols, Jurchens, and Manchus

Mongolia in Transition 1368-1911

Modern Mongolia 1911-1984

Damdiny Sukhbataar, Mongolian Revolutionary Hero

Mongolia's Socialist Construction Under Tsedenbal, 1952- 84

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 Mongolian Women in History

Female Hero: Sorghaghtani Beki

Heroines: Mongolian Women

Names of Mongol Woman Royalty


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Nomadic Civilization, Inner Asian History and Pastoral Nomadism


Hun, Pazyryk, Scythian, Bactrian, Vani, Merv, Central Asian History Brief

History of Inner Asia

Pope Leo's Historic Meeting with Attila the Hun, 452 A.D.

Nomadism and Pastoralism Worldwide, History and Analysis

Mongolian Nomads Method for Making Felt

Exhibition: Nomadic Waves & Cultural Exchange on the Inner Mongolian Steppe

'Animal Style' and the Image of the Horse and Rider



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Art of the Mongol Empire

The New Visual Language Created by the Mongols

Legacy of Genghis Khan exhibition

Yuan Dynasty Art (1279-1368)

Mongol Saddle Arch in Gold, 13th Century, Golden Horde Dynasty

Mongol Rider with Administrator, Yuan Dynasty Painting

Alanquva and Her Three Sons, from the Chingiznama of Rashid ad-Din, 1596, Mughal Dynasty

Black & White Illustration of Genghis Khan's Tents, Ilkhanid Dynasty

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Other Mongolian History Images

Ancient Deer Stones, Western Mongolia

Ancient Stone Figure, Western Mongolia

Ancient Armour and Helmets Yuan Dynasty

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European Technology and Manchu Power: Reflections on the "Military Revolution" in Seventeenth Century China (Fall of the Ming Dynasty & the Rise of the Manchu Qing Dynasty)

Notes on the Mongols (Brief Summary of Turko-Mongol Tribes)

Przewalski Horse: Ancient Mongolian Horse Rescued from the Brink of Extinction

Mongol Creation Stories

Documentation & Construction of Period Mongol Names

Sacred Mongolian Environmental Texts

Photos of Karakorum Archeological Excavations

Mongolia Climate

Bugut Inscription and Early Turkic Habitation in Mongolia

Yeh-lu Chu'tsai, Advisor to Genghis Khan

Rashid ad-Din's Letters: Genuine History or Forgery? By Abolala Soudavar

The Initial Upper Paleolithic in Northeast Asia

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Mongol Empire Maps

Mongol Empire Map with Marco Polo Route

Mongol Khanates, Black & White Map1

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Timelines of Mongolian History

Timeline of Mongolian History 

Mongol Dynasties Timelines

Southwest Asia Time Line 1500 to Now

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History of Central Asian Tribal Groups

The Xiongnu Culture, 3rd Century BCE

The Migration of the Yuezhi (Yue-Chi) through Sogdia

The Huns Chronology and Timeline

The White Huns- Hephthalites

The Alans

The Khitan and Jurchen

The Khwarezm Shah Empire, 1151 - 1231 A.D.

Mongol Tatars

Ibn al-Athir: On The Tatars, 1220-1221 CE

The Tatars

Ethnic Processes Within the Turkic Population of the West Siberian Plain By NIKOLAI A. TOMILOV

The Sogdians

The Jalayirids

The Qara Khitai, 810 - 1000 A.D.

The Crimean Tatars

The Ashtarkhanid Rulers of Bukhara

Kazakhstan Unesco history 12th-14th century

Kazakh Area Unesco History

History of Kazakhstan

The Russian Redbook Listing of Endangered Tribes (Very Large Compendium of Individual Tribal Histories)

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The Silk Road

Silk Road Chronology

A Silk Road Timeline

Old World Traditional Trade Routes Maps

Travelers on the Silk Road

Bactrian Camel: Camelus Bactrianus

Tibetan Manuscripts from the Silk Road

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Silk Road Art

Luxury Arts of the Silk Road

Silk Road Art of the Sogdians

Early Portrait Painting in Tibet by Jane Casey Singer

Photographs: In the Mountains of Central Asia

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Silk Road Frescoes of Dunhuang

Dunhuang, located in Gansu Province, northwestern China was one of the main destinations on the ancient Silk Road.  Dunhuang is famous today primarily for its 492 caves that house a treasure trove of frescoes, scrolls and Buddhist objects dating from the 4th century to 12th century A.D. The Dunhuang frescoes strikingly illustrate the cross-cultural confluence of aesthetics, philosophies, mythologies, and histories of India, Central Asia, and China. During the Yuan Dynasty nine new caves were created and frescoes of the Tibetan Buddhist pantheon were painted within.  

International Dunhuang Project

Dunhuang- Buddhist Art From The Silk Road text by Roderick Whitfield; photographs by Seigo Otsuka

Dunhuang Caves in China (Mogao Caves)

Introduction to Dunhuang Cave Art



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Historical Maps

Mauryan Empire Map, ca. 323 - 185 B.C.

Kushan Empire Map, ca. 2nd - 3rd Century A.D.

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Indian Historical Cultural Influence in Central Asia,

Gandharan, Bactrian, Sogdian, Parthian, Sarmatian Art

Asoka, Rock and Pillar Edicts

Mauryan Art and Architecture

The Vasantra Jataka from Miran, Central Asia

Map Showing Diffusion of Indian Languages into Asia

Kharosthi Alphabet

Two Aspects of Serindian Art

The Conservation of a 5th century Buddhist Gandharan Manuscript by Susan Sayre Batton

Cave as Canvas: Hidden Images of Worship Along the Ancient Silk Routes

A Lost Literary Buddhist Tradition is Found By PETER MONAGHAN

Buddhism and its Spread Along the Silk Road

Demon & Deities: Masks of the Himalayas By Thomas Murray Photography by Don Tuttle

Indic Ideas in the Graeco-Roman World

Ancient Coins of Bactria and Northwest India

Alexander in the East Map with Bactria Region

Alexander of Macedonia

Sogdiana and Soghdian Art

Images of Khorasan and Sogdian Art

Court Art of Sogdian Samarqand in the 7th century A.D.

Sogdian Influences Seen on Turkic Stone Statues, Focusing in the Fingers Representations by Toshio Hayashi

Sogdian Civilization's Peculiarities by Boris Y. Stavisky

Silver Sogdian Coins

Empire, Fragmentation and Salvation in Mauryan India

Parthian Arts and Artifacts

Parthian Empire Map

Central Asian Region of Modern day Kyrghistan's Relationship with India 6th - 10th Century A.D.

Rock Carving and Inscriptions Along the Indus, The Buddhist Tradition by Volker Thewalt

Dionysus and Katargama: Parallel Mystery Cults by Patrick Harrigan

Mongol Armies and Indian Campaigns

The Indo-Mongolian Relationship: A Retrospective Outlook on Buddhism

Manichaen Input to Chinese Culture and Art by R. Banerjee

Sun Wukong, the Monkey King

From Protean Ape to Handsome Saint: The Monkey King by Whalen Lai





Compiled by the Indo-Mongolian Society of New York in 2004